The construction of monolithic buildings today is one of the most common technologies for the construction of structures for various purposes. Its main feature is that during construction, separate building elements are not used - blocks, bricks or panels, and the whole building is a one-piece structure made of concrete mixture.
This technology is successfully used both for the construction of monolithic high-rise buildings and for the construction of low-rise residential buildings. Taking into account the total financial costs, time and human resources used, the price of such structures is lower than when using other materials.
TECHNOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION
A monolithic building is a seamless structure that is installed on a solid concrete slab with a thickness of at least 1 m. Formwork for pouring a liquid concrete mixture is attached to it. To enhance the strength characteristics, the concrete mix is reinforced, i.e. metal rods and meshes are immersed in it. It also prevents cracking of the concrete and increases the seismic resistance of the building. In the process of pouring concrete, the mixture is compacted using submersible vibrators, which help to remove accumulated air. Thus, a reinforced concrete frame is created that has high strength, reliability and durability.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MONOLITHIC BUILDINGS
The construction of a monolithic building has a number of advantages over the use of other materials:
- Monolith buildings with the same parameters of thermal conductivity, thermal insulation characteristics and strength are 15-20% lighter, which reduces the load on the supporting structures and the foundation of the building;
- When designing and constructing monolithic buildings, there are no restrictions on architectural solutions, i.e. there is no reference to the dimensions of finished structural elements (panels, blocks). In monolithic construction, there may be restrictions only on the operational properties of the material;
- Гnlike panel construction, where wall panels are manufactured in production and delivered to the construction site in finished form, in monolithic construction everything takes place directly at the construction site. In addition, the seamless construction does not require additional work on sealing and insulation of joints;
- The absence of seams between individual elements of the building significantly increases its operational characteristics, as well as the strength and reliability of the entire structure;
- The construction of a monolithic house will require significantly less labor resources, as well as time costs.
The disadvantages of monolithic construction include the dependence of the work on weather conditions. At low air temperatures, concrete work cannot be carried out, or it is necessary to use transformers during the pouring of concrete to heat the concrete mixture.
STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION OF A MONOLITHIC HOUSE
The construction technology of a monolithic building includes several important stages:
- development of design estimates;
- site preparation for construction;
- installation of the foundation;
- installation of fittings;
- formwork installation;
- production and pouring of concrete mix.
Development of design estimates is a necessary and important stage in any construction, both a high-rise building and a small cottage. As a project, you can choose a typical project, but it is important to modify the standard parameters based on the specific conditions of the location and operation of the building. Therefore, it is important that professional architects and designers who are well aware of the «pitfalls» of any construction are engaged in the development of the project. It is important to provide for the production of concrete mix directly on the construction site, this will save on transport costs and reduce the total cost of construction work.
When designing buildings, the specialists of the LMS company use modern BIM technologies and create an information spatial three-dimensional model of the future object. The approach to the design of buildings through their information modeling involves the collection and integrated processing of all architectural, engineering, technological, economic and other information about a building with all its interrelationships, when the structure and everything related to it are considered as a single object.
FOUNDATION FOR A MONOLITHIC STRUCTURE - TYPES AND FEATURES
The type of foundation for a monolithic building is selected at the design stage, based on the size, number of storeys and structural features of the building, bearing capacity, soil characteristics, proximity to groundwater, etc. For the construction of monolithic buildings, several types of foundations are used:
- The strip foundation consists of a reinforced concrete belt located under all load-bearing elements and internal partitions. For the construction of low-rise buildings, a shallow-recessed type of strip foundation with a depth of up to 0.7 m is used. For the construction of multi-storey buildings, a fully recessed version of the foundation is used, which is installed at a depth of at least 50 cm from the level of soil freezing. By design features, the strip foundation can be monolithic and prefabricated. The monolithic structure, despite the high concrete consumption, has a higher strength and reliability, providing uniform ground pressure.
- A slab foundation is a monolithic or prefabricated reinforced concrete slab installed on a prepared foundation. The use of concrete slabs as a foundation is recommended in seismically hazardous areas, on deeply freezing and heaving soils with a high level of groundwater, with a large height difference on the construction site, etc. The foundation of reinforced slabs can be used as a subfloor with additional work on insulation.
- The pile foundation is most often used in the multi-storey construction of monolithic houses. Screw, bored and driven piles are used as piles.
MOISTURE PROTECTION OF THE FOUNDATION AND WALLS OF THE BUILDING
Waterproofing works are carried out outside and inside the building to protect concrete structures from high humidity and aggressive environmental factors. For waterproofing, several types of protection are used - coating with a bituminous mixture, treatment with chemical compounds to create a moisture-resistant coating, pasting with roofing material of all types.
INSTALLATION OF THE REINFORCEMENT FRAME
Reinforcement gives additional strength and reliability to reinforced concrete structures, reinforced structure to a greater extent prevents destruction or loss of operational properties. To create the frame, an iron rod with a diameter of 10 mm (for the construction of low-rise buildings on normal soil) to 14-18 mm is used for the construction of high-rise buildings or the construction of houses on problem ground.
The reinforcement can be working, reducing the tensile indices, distributing, regulating the load between the frame parts and monolithic, which determines the location of the reinforcement in the general structure of the building and holds it together. In industrial construction, fittings are welded in production and delivered ready for installation. In the construction of small houses, the fittings are welded and bonded at the construction site.
The formwork is installed on all sides of the support reinforcement and is necessary for fixing the concrete mix. It can be collapsible or non-removable. Demountable wooden formwork is used for the construction of small buildings, as well as a structure made of metal panels (movable formwork), and a mobile sliding formwork, which, after the concrete hardens, is moved to the next stage using lifting mechanisms.
The most durable and reliable is wooden formwork. Today, more and more often in the construction of monolithic houses, non-removable structures made of expanded polystyrene hollow blocks are used, which, after the completion of construction work, are used as insulation.
The concrete mix for pouring consists of 53% of coarse filler (most often it is crushed stone, but slag, perlite can be used), 33.5% of fine filler (sand of coarse and medium grain size) and 13.5% of cement. The concrete mix can be prepared at the construction site (the best option for the construction of large buildings), or purchased and delivered from production (the best option for small buildings). The concrete mix is laid by hand, or special equipment is used.
The company «LMS» is a full-cycle company engaged in the construction of high-rise, monolithic and monolithic-brick residential buildings on a turnkey basis in Moscow and the region, as well as in other cities of Russia. We provide a full range of services: from project development to putting the facility into operation.