A hydroelectric power station is a power plant that uses the movement of water masses as a source of energy. During the design and construction of a hydroelectric power station, a number of serious conditions and rules must be observed. Let's consider them in more detail.


The most important point in the design of a hydroelectric power plant is the choice of the construction site. An error at this stage can lead to low efficiency of the hydroelectric power plant and even flooding of nearby settlements. To prevent this from happening, the place where the hydroelectric power station will be located must meet the following requirements:

  • The presence of a river with a strong current that runs at an angle and gives access to water all year round. Due to the work of the hydroelectric power station, intensive evaporation of water occurs. The strong current will compensate for the evaporated water in a timely manner.
  • The proximity of suppliers of materials for construction. Since hydroelectric power plants are being built near mountain rivers, there may be a problem with the delivery of building materials to the site. It will be better if there are quarries near the construction site where you can get the necessary types of raw materials.
  • Soil stability. The force of the flow, the weight of the structure and the water put a heavy load on the soil. Therefore, you need to choose a very stable soil with a dense structure that can withstand high pressure.


The process of obtaining hydropower has a number of interesting features. The most important of these is that the energy of the rivers is converted into electricity. Consider the rest:

  • this method of generating energy is the cheapest;
  • the process of obtaining hydropower is one of the most environmentally friendly;
  • the process of obtaining hydropower is characterized by a low amount of hazardous waste;
  • the water in the river is constantly renewed and little depleted;
  • the reservoir is a favorable place for fish breeding, the fish population is increasing, which has a good effect on the fish industry;
  • reservoirs have strong protective structures that keep water only in a certain area;
  • The hydroelectric power station has powerful purification systems.


There are several ways to classify hydroelectric power plants. So, depending on how hydroelectric power plants work, there are:

  • Dam hydroelectric power plants, for the operation of which dams are created, partially blocking the lower part of the river, and, thus, creating a head.
  • Dam hydroelectric power plants, which are built with the strongest water pressure. The water source is blocked off with a dam, and the station is located behind it.
  • Derivative. These hydroelectric power plants are being built with a steep slope, at the very bottom of the river.
  • Pumped storage (PSPP). At the PSPP, the lower and upper basins are being built, and the station itself is located near the lower.

Depending on the power generated by the structures, it is customary to distinguish small, medium and powerful hydroelectric power plants. Depending on the water pressure required for operation: low-pressure, medium-pressure and high-pressure.


Like any structure, a hydroelectric power plant has its pros and cons. The main advantages include:

  • full self-renewability of the energy source;
  • absence of harmful emissions into the atmosphere;
  • long-term operation of the structure: more than 100 years;
  • cheap and profitable energy.

The disadvantages include:

  • emissions of water vapor, which is a factor provoking global warming;
  • waterlogging and migration of animals from flooded areas;
  • unnatural changes in river channels;

Despite the presence of disadvantages, we can safely say that this method of energy production has more advantages. And the most important of them is that the operation of hydroelectric power plants does not require nuclear fuel or other fuel, and as a result of their operation, no harmful emissions into the environment arise.


The core of the hydroelectric power station is the powerhouse. All the units necessary for operation are located there: generators of electricity and turbines. In addition, around the station itself, structures are being built that are part of the hydroelectric complex: a dam, an equalizing tank, transformation stations, and treatment facilities.


Today in Russia there are about 200 hydroelectric power plants. The largest of them are:

  • Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station in Khakassia. This hydroelectric power station has been reconstructed and built for over 37 years. And its capacity is over 6,000 MW.
  • Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The station is considered the most profitable thermal power plant, and the second most profitable and efficient hydroelectric power plant in Russia.
  • Bratsk hydroelectric power station in the Irkutsk region, which is the largest in Siberia, the third in terms of capacity and the first in terms of production of a hydroelectric power plant in Russia.

The Limak Marash group of companies is engaged in the design and construction of buildings and structures of any complexity. We have a lot of different projects under our belt: Dam and HPP Alkumru, Dam and HPS Obruk, Dam and hydro-electric power station Uzunchayr and others. To find out the terms of cooperation, call the number indicated on the website, or write to us by mail.