DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF HOSPITALS
Today it is difficult to imagine the life of any city or village without healthcare institutions. Hospitals, clinics, outpatient clinics, multifunctional medical centers are a special category of public buildings, both in terms of creating conditions for the provision of quality medical care, and in terms of convenience and safety for patients and the work of medical personnel.
Hospitals refer to medical institutions on the basis of which medical care is provided in a hospital setting. Patients are here around the clock, so hospitals are equipped not only with medical, diagnostic buildings and offices, but also comfortable wards for patients, offices for medical personnel, as well as the necessary auxiliary rooms for the overall management of the hospital.
The provision of medical care today has reached a qualitatively new level and modern hospitals must meet the highest quality standards. Therefore, the design and construction of hospitals is a difficult and responsible task, the solution of which must be dealt with by high-level professionals.
FEATURES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF HOSPITALS
The creation of a hospital project should be approached taking into account a number of features:
- general requirements for health care institutions in general and hospitals in particular;
- profile area of work and type of hospital - adult, children's, specialized, regional, district, city, etc.;
- the number of buildings, the number and types of hospital premises: equipped wards for accommodating patients, the layout of the department for receiving patients, treatment departments, surgical units, etc.;
- maximum number of patients;
- characteristics of the site allocated for construction: location, surrounding infrastructure, soil and soil, climatic features of the area, etc.;
- compliance with the requirements of labor protection, fire safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency, access for people with disabilities, etc.
HOSPITAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
The existing rules and regulations for medical institutions include two main categories:
Requirements for the layout of the territory:
- The location of the healthcare facility in relation to the red lines;
- The main entrance to the building is located as close as possible to the entrance to the territory;
- The main building and adjacent buildings, if possible, should form a single building, connected by covered galleries, warm passages or atriums;
- On the adjacent territory there is an economic zone, a car parking zone, resting places for visitors, etc.;
- The adjacent territory of the hospital complex must be fenced;
- The area of the site should provide an opportunity to increase medical buildings;
- The size of the plot is calculated according to the table at the rate of 1 m2 of the number of beds.
Requirements for the building of a medical facility. Inpatient-type institutions, as a rule, include round-the-clock hospitals, hospitals with daytime stay of patients, treatment departments, consultative or diagnostic departments, rooms for clinical work of departments, as well as auxiliary, utility and service rooms. When designing a building, it is important that planning solutions provide the following indicators:
- Efficient logistics in the provision of medical care;
- Good isolation of the premises - maternity wards, operating units, admission wards, patient rooms, rooms for high-risk diagnostic procedures using ionizing radiation, etc.;
- Separate location of departments of increased risk of infection;
- Prevention of the spread of nosocomial infections;
- Thoughtfulness of natural and artificial lighting;
- High-quality protection of medical equipment from external influences and the correct organization of its work;
- Compliance of the location, layout and size of the premises with their functional purpose, etc.
A complete list of requirements is specified in the set of rules of SP 158.13330.2014 and other regulatory documents. At the same time, the requirements have significant differences in the construction of different types of hospitals.
STAGES OF PREPARATION OF THE HOSPITAL PROJECT
- Preparatory stage. At this stage, consultations with the customer are carried out and the main characteristics of the future object are determined - the number of floors, the location, the layout of the internal premises, taking into account the profile of the institution and the maximum number of patients.
- Pre-project preparation. At this stage, a complex of engineering surveys and a topographic survey of the construction site are being carried out.
- The development of a hospital construction project is the main stage. In the process, constructive, architectural, space-planning solutions for the future building and planning schemes for the adjacent territory are being developed. Design work is carried out in accordance with the requirements of the RF Government Decree No. 87.
- Expertise of the finished project and its approval by the construction supervision authorities.
- Development of detailed drawings for all types of work.
- Construction supervision. The service of architectural supervision of construction works allows you to get exactly the result that the customer expects.
MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE HOSPITAL CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
- Layout of the common area, including landscaping work. At this stage, taking into account the total number of admitted patients, the layout and layout of the hospital buildings, driveways, pedestrian paths and recreation area, the location of auxiliary buildings, landscaping schemes are developed, and a sketch of the external facade is made.
- Architectural section. This section includes a visual representation of the result of construction work, a detailed description of the functional characteristics of all structures, elements and systems, with their display in graphic diagrams and drawings.
- Constructive section of the project. In this section, calculations of the maximum loads on the supporting structures are provided, detailed plans, diagrams and drawings of all parts of the building are developed, indicating the building materials used. This information is included in the final estimate of the cost of the construction.
- Engineering section. This part presents detailed drawings of water supply and sewerage systems, power supply, heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
REGULATORY BASE OF PROJECT DEVELOPMENT
The creation of a project is regulated by a number of regulatory documents, including federal laws: «Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation», «On Energy Saving and on Increasing Energy Efficiency», «Technical Regulations for the Safety of Buildings and Structures», «Technical Regulations on Fire Safety Requirements», sets of rules , SNiP, in the section of requirements for buildings of healthcare institutions, etc.
The construction of a new comfortable hospital or clinic is a real concern for the health of our citizens!
The Limak Marash group of companies is a recognized leader in the construction industry in Russia! We have built many facilities for various purposes, including hospitals (a public hospital in Turkey, a Perinatal Center in Turkey, a city hospital in Turkey). We are distinguished by the high professionalism of our specialists, an impeccable business reputation and a responsible attitude to our work. The structural divisions of the company provide all types of services related to design, construction, registration of permits. We are engaged in the construction of state children's and adult hospitals, clinics, regional, district or city subordination, private medical centers in Moscow and other regions of Russia, guaranteeing consistently high quality.